Selected Publications

Articles In Academic Journals

Year Title
2017 21st Century climate change and submerged aquatic vegetation in a temperate estuary: the case of Chesapeake BayEcosystem Health and Sustainability.
2017 Experimental impacts of climate warming and ocean carbonation on eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 1-15.
2016 Characteristics of colored dissolved organic material in the sea ice and water column in the Canadian Arctic in the early springMarine Chemistry. 1-13.
2016 Mixing effects on light exposure in a large-lake epilimnion: A preliminary dual-dye studyLimnology and Oceanography: Methods. 542-554.
2015 Predicting carbon isotope discrimination in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) from the environmental parameters—light, flow, and [DIC]Limnology and Oceanography. 1875-1889.
2015 Predicting effects of ocean warming, acidification and water quality on Chesapeake region eelgrassLimnol. Oceanogr.. 1781-1804.
2015 The day after tomorrow: understanding ocean acidification impacts on organismal to ecological scalesOceanography. 16-27.
2014 Evaluating light availability, seagrass biomass and productivity using hyperspectral airborne remote sensing in Saint Joseph’s Bay, FloridaEstuaries and coasts. 1467-1489.
2011 The optical properties of Greater Florida Bay: implications for seagrass abundanceEstuaries and coasts. 1150-1160.
2010 Bathymetry Retrieval from Hyperspectral Imagery in the Very Shallow Water Limit: A Case Study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR '07) Multi-Sensor Campaign'Marine Geodesy. 53-75.
2010 Bathymetry retrieval from hypersepectral imagery in the very shallow water limit: a case study from the 2007 Virginia Coastal Reserve (VCR’07) Multi-Sensor CampaignMarine Geodesy. 53-75.
2010 Benthic ecology from space: optics and net primary production cross the Great Bahama BankMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 1-15.
2010 Modeling the vertical distributions of downwelling plane irradiance and diffuse attenuation coefficient in optically deep watersGeophys. Res.-Oceans. 14 pp.
2010 The widespread occurrence of coupled carbonate dissolution/reprecipitation in surface sediments on the Bahamas BankAmer. J. Science. 492-521.
2009 Biofouling and barnacle adhesion data for fouling-release coatings subjected to static immersion at seven marine sitesBiofouling. 331-344.
2009 Potential export of unattached benthic macroalgae to the deep sea through wind-driven Langmuir circulationGeophys. Res. Let..
2008 Net Primary production, growth and standing crop of Macrocystis pyrifera in Southern CaliforniaEcology. 2068.
2007 Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) response to CO2 enrichment: possible impacts of climate change and potential for remediation of coastal habitatsMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 1-13.
2006 Dynamics of carbon allocation in a deep water population of the deciduous kelp Pleurophycus gardneriMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 143-157.
2006 Red and black tides: Quantitative anaylsis of sea spectral reflectance and perceived color for phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter, and suspended sedimentsLiminol. Oceanogr.. 2646-2659.
2006 Top-down vs. bottom up effects in kelp forestsScience. 1737-1739.
2003 A biooptical model of irradiance distribution and photosynthesis in seagrass canopiesLimnol. Oceanogr.. 568-585.
2003 Effects of epiphyte load on optical properties and photosynthetic potential of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum Koenig and Zostera marina L.Limnol. Oceanogr.. 456-463.
2003 Light harvesting and the package effect in Thalassia testudinum Koenig and Zostera marina L.: Optical constraints on photoacclimationAquat. Bot.. 261-274.
2003 Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imageryLimnol. Oceangr.. 444-455.
2002 Effect of storms on photosynthesis, carbohydrate content and survival of eelgrass populations from a coastal lagoon and the adjacent open oceanAquat. Bot.. 149-164.
2002 Hyperspectral remote sensing of subtidal macrophytes in optically shallow waterLimnol. Oceanogr..
2002 The effect of elevated levels of phaeophytin in natural waters on variable fluorescence measured from phytoplanktonJ. Plank. Res.. 1221-1229.
2001 Modeling underwater light climate in relation to sedimentation, resuspension, water quality and autotrophic growth.Hydrobiolgia. 25-42.
2001 Top-down impact through a bottom-up mechanism: In situ effects of limpet grazing on growth, light requirements and survival of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass)Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 127-140.
1999 Resource allocation and sucrose mobilization in light-limited eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 121-131.
1997 Impacts of CO2 -enrichment on productivity and light requirements of eelgrassPlant Physiol.. 599-607.
1996 Effect of light/dark transition on carbon translocation in eelgrass Zostera marina seedlingsMarine Ecology Progress Series. 305-309.
1996 Photosynthetic response of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) to ultraviolet radiationJ. Phycol.. 614-620.
1996 Top-down impact through a bottom-up mechanism: the effect of limpet grazing on growth, productivity and carbon allocation of Zostera marinaOecol.. 560-567.
1995 Carbon partitioning in eelgrass. Regulation by photosynthesis and the response to daily light-dark cyclesPlant Physiol.. 1665-1671.
1995 Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) transplants in San Francisco Bay: role of light availability on metabolism, growth and survivalAquat. Bot.. 67-86..
1994 Assessment of genetic diversity of seagrass populations using DNA fingerprinting: Implications for population stability and managementProc. Nat. Acad. Sci.. 1049-1053.
1994 Modeling daily production of aquatic macrophytes from irradiance measurements: a comparative analysisMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 185-196.
1993 The antifouling activity of natural and synthetic phenolic acid sulphate estersPhytochem.. 401-404.
1992 Molecular and physiological response of diatoms to variable levels of irradiance and nitrogen availability. I. Growth of Skeletonema costatum in simulated upwelling conditions.Limnol. Oceanogr.. 989-1007.
1991 Assessment of environmental suitability for growth of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) in San Francisco BayAquat. Bot.. 353-366.
1991 Variation in nitrogen physiology and growth among geographically isolated populations of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta)J. Phycol.. 149-158.
1989 Thermal acclimation and whole plant carbon balance in Zostera marina L. (eelgrass)J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.. 93-109.
1988 Effects of long term anaerobiosis on carbon metabolism and respiration in roots of Zostera marina L.Eos. 1741.
1987 Acceleration of nutrient uptake by phytoplankton in a coastal upwelling ecosystem: A modeling analysisLimnol. Oceanogr.. 359-367.
1987 Evaluation of variance approximation techniques for non-linear photosynthesis-irradiance modelsMar. Biol.. 209-215.
1987 Is growth of eelgrass nitrogen limited? A numerical simulation of the effects of light and nitrogen on the growth dynamics of Zostera marinaMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 167-176.
1986 In situ growth and chemical composition of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera: response to temporal changes in ambient nutrient availabilityMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 277-285.
1985 Effects of El Nino on local hydrography and growth of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera at Santa Catalina Island, CaliforniaLimnol. Oceanogr.. 1298-1302.
1984 Episodic nutrient supply to a kelp forest ecosystem in southern CaliforniaJ. Mar. Res.. 591-604.
1984 Influences of macronutrients and water temperatures on summertime survival of Macrocystis canopiesHydrobiologia. 419-424.
1983 Seasonal patterns in the productivity of a giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forest: the effect of nutrient availability. Ph.D. Dissertation..  182.
1979 Species of demersal zooplankton inhabiting a kelp forest ecosystem off Santa Catalina Island, CaliforniaBull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci.. 199-206.
1977 Adaptation of light harvesting pigments to downwelling light and the consequent photosynthetic performance of eulittoral rockweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosusMar. Biol.. 293-303.


Year Title
2013 Chapter 18. Using oceanographic LIDAR to determine the vertial bio-optical structure of the upper oceanSubsea Optics and Imaging. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing.
2006 Chapter 12. Aquatic optics: basic concepts for understanding how light affects seagrasses and makes them measurable from spaceSeagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation. Springer.
2006 Chapter 13. Light and photosynthesis in seagrass meadowsSeagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation. Springer.
2002 Chapter 8. Primary ProducersChanges in a California estuary. A profile of Elkhorn Slough. Moss Landing, California, USA: Elkhorn Slough Foundation.
2002 Stimulating eelgrass production with industrial flue gas: eco-engineering for habitat remediation and purposeful ocean carbon storageInternational Workshop for Seagrass Ecosystem Engineering and Carbon Sequestration. Graduate School of Frontier Science, University of Tokyo.
2000 Environmentally acceptable control of microbial biofilmsBiofilms: recent advances in their study and control. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Conference Papers

Year Title
2017 Remote Sensing of Optical Characteristics and Particle Distributions of the Upper Ocean Using Shipboard Lidar
2017 Spectroscopy for global observation of coastal and inland aquatic habitats.  3051-3054.
2016 Bio-optical assessment of giant kelp productivity
2016 Exploiting LIDAR to retrieve particle distributions of the upper ocean
2016 In situ oceanographic lidar as a tool for retrieving and characterizing particle distributions in the ocean
2016 The effects of turbulence on light exposure in a large-lake surface mixed-layer: a preliminary in-situ dual-dye study
2014 The impact of increasing dissolved CO2 concentration on photoacclimation of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)
2012 Bio-Optical Modeling of SAV Habitat Requirements: Improving predictions of Water Quality Impacts on a Critical Marine Resource
2012 Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Arctic surface waters: implications for solar heating
2011 Combined Impacts of Climate Warming and Ocean Carbonation on Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)
2011 Combined impacts of climate warming and ocean carbonation on seagrass: from observation to prediction. INVITED PRESENTATION
2011 Exploring the utility of the broadband ultispectral sensor WorldView 2 for investigation of nearshore coastal environments
2011 The optical properties of Florida Bay: Impacts for Seagrass Productivity
2010 Benthic Ecology From Space: Using Remote Sensing to Understand Biogeochemical Fluxes in Nearshore Coastal Environments
2010 Merging active and passive ocean sensors to improve retrieval of primary production in the Arctic Ocean
2009 Effect of Remote Sensing Image Resolution on the Retrieval of Biomass and Productivity Estimates for Giant Kelp Forests
2008 Primary productivity patterns in the Arctic: the 10 year SeaWiFS record
2008 The influence of sea ice on arctic ocean marine primary production: regional responses
2007 Improving seagrass and ecosystem management with high resolution water quality instrumentation
2007 The Red Edge: Exploring high near-infrared reflectance of phytoplankton and the implications for scattering
2006 Remote Sensing Assessment of Kelp Forest and Seagrass Meadow Productivity
2006 Remote sensing assessment of kelp forest productivity
2005 Use of remotely sensed ocean color to retrieve biogeochemical properties in the lower Chesapeake Bay
1997 Radiative transfer within seagrass canopies: impact on carbon budgets and light requirements.  331-336.
Chesapeake Light Tower as a coastal observing platform
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Arctic surface waters: implications for solar heating
Dynamic variability on the spectral polarized light field measured over seagrass and sand
Environmental and physiological influences on d13C of Zostera marina L.
Hyperspectral mapping of seagrass abundance and distribution in Saint Joseph’s Bay, Florida
Impacts of rising CO2 and nitrogen metabolism of eelgrass, Zostera marina L.
Impacts of rising CO2 on carbon and nitrogen composition of eelgrass, Zostera marina L.
Modeling the impacts of water quality on SAV and other living resources in the tidal Chesapeake Bay. Invited Presentation
Observing,Modeling,and Retrieving Bio-optical Properties in Coastal Waters Around the Mouth of the Chesapeake Bay
Quantifying the abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation in nearshore coastal environments with the broadband multispectral sensor,Worldview 2
Seagrass response to ocean acidification: from individual leaves to populations
Simulating effects of CO2 enrichment on nitrogen metabolism in eelgrass
Technologies for mapping submerged aquatic vegetation. INVITED PRESENTATION
The Application of Imaging Spectroscopy in Coastal Ocean Observing Systems
The biooptics of Syringodium filiforme canopies: Effects of cylindrical leaves on light distribution and absorption
The utility of WorldView2 for nearshore coastal environments

Research Overview

  • Ecological physiology of marine photosynthesis, metabolic regulation of carbon and nutrient dynamics in marine ecosystems, radiative transfer and remote sensing of optically shallow waters, ecosystem productivity and numerical modeling.
  • Grants

  • Quantification of Blue Carbon Burial in Seagrass Ecosystems and the Impact of Projected Climate Change  awarded by National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2017 - 2019
  • Collaborative Research: Toward An Improved Understanding of Blue Carbon: The Role of Seegrasses In Sequestering Co2  awarded by National Science Foundation 2016 - 2019
  • Collaborative Research: Toward an Improved Understanding of Blue Carbon: The Role of Seagrasses in Sequestering CO  awarded by National Science Foundation 2016 - 2019
  • Collaborative Research: Toward an improved understanding of blue carbon: The role of seagrasses in sequestering CO2  awarded by NSF Biological Oceanography 2016 - 2019
  • Quantif Blue Carbon Burial in Seagrass Ecosys & Impact Projected Climate Change  awarded by NASA-Headquarters 2017 - 2018
  • Image Analysis of Biofouling Test Panels  awarded by Excet, Inc. 2016 - 2017
  • Chesapeake Bay Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Habitat Requirement and Restoration Targets: A THIRD Technical Synthesi  awarded by Maryland Dept. Natural Resources 2014 - 2016
  • Modeling the impacts of water quality on SAV and other living resources in the tidal Chesapeake Bay  awarded by US Environmental Protection Agency 2014 - 2016
  • MRI Acquisition of a Hybrid Mass Spectrometer System for the Next Generation of Multidisciplinary Geosciences Research, Student Education and Training Funding Agency: National Science Foundation  awarded by National Science Foundation 2012 - 2015
  • Collaborative Research: Impact Of Climate Warming and Ocean Carbonation On Eelgrass (Zostera marina)  awarded by National Science Foundation 2011 - 2015
  • Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Photoprotective Mechanisms and Carbon Partitioning in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)  awarded by Virginia Sea Grant 2012 - 2014
  • Remote Assessment of Florida Seagrass Abundance, Bathymetry and Prop Scarring from WV2 Imagery – St George Sound  awarded by Florida DNR/ Florida Environmental Research Institute 2012 - 2013
  • Integrated Modeling of SAV Habitat Requirements: Improving Predictions of Water Quality and Land Use Impacts on a Critical Marine Resource  awarded by Virginia Sea Grant 2011 - 2013
  • Construction and testing of an in situ LIDAR Instrument  awarded by NASA/SSAI/SAIC 2010 - 2011
  • Remote Assessment of Florida Seagrass Abundance, Bathymetry and Prop Scarring from WV2 Imagery Dekle Beach and St Joseph/’s Bay  awarded by Florida DNR/Florida Environmental Research Institute 2010 - 2011
  • Remote Assessment of Giant Kelp Dynamics – The Engineer of California’s Nearshore Ecosystems  awarded by NASA 2007 - 2011
  • Evaluate the Utility of CALIPSO Data for Ocean Color Application  awarded by NASA 2008 - 2010
  • Increase in SOW: CALIPSO/ROSES: Construction of an in-situ LIDAR System  awarded by SAIC 2008 - 2010
  • Producing an updated synthesis of the Arctic’s marine primary production regime and its controls.  awarded by NSF 2006 - 2009
  • Bethnic Ecology from Space  awarded by NASA 2005 - 2008
  • CI-CORE  awarded by NOAA 2004 - 2008
  • Seat-Truth Support for Hyperspectral Overflights of St. Joe's Bay, Florida  awarded by FERI 2006 - 2007
  • modeling the impacts of water quality on SAV and other living resources  awarded by EPA 2014 -
  • Keywords

  • Biology : ecological plant physiology, systems ecology, marine biology
  • Climate Change : ocean acidification, global warming
  • Environmental Issues : water quality, climate change, ocean productivity
  • Oceanography : plant physiology, photosynthesis, environmental optics, remote sensing, electronics, instrumentation, statistics
  • Plants : photosynthesis, physiology & ecology
  • Remote Sensing : ocean color, LIDAR, coastal ecosystems
  • Education And Training

  • Ph.D. in Biological Sciences, University of Southern California 1983
  • M.S. in Biological Sciences, University of Southern California 1979
  • B.S. in Biological Sciences, University of Southern California 1975
  • Full Name

  • Richard Zimmerman