Selected Publications

Articles In Academic Journals

Year Title
2017 21st Century climate change and submerged aquatic vegetation in a temperate estuary: the case of Chesapeake BayEcosystem Health and Sustainability.
2017 Experimental impacts of climate warming and ocean carbonation on eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 1-15.
2016 Characteristics of colored dissolved organic material in the sea ice and water column in the Canadian Arctic during the early springMarine Chemistry. 1-13.
2016 Detection of propeller scars in seagrass meadows using sparse coding and morphological filterRemote Sens. Env..
2015 Predicting carbon isotope discrimination in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) from the environmental parameters—light, flow, and [DIC]Limnology and Oceanography. 1875-1889.
2015 Predicting effects of ocean warming, acidification and water quality on Chesapeake Bay eelgrassLimnol. Oceanogr.. 1781-1804.
2015 The day after tomorrow: understanding ocean acidification impacts on organismal to ecological scalesOceanography. 16-27.
2014 Evaluating light availability, seagrass biomass and productivity using hyperspectral airborne remote sensing in Saint Joseph’s Bay, FloridaEstuaries and Coasts. 1467-1489.
2011 The optical properties of Greater Florida Bay: implications for seagrass abundanceEstuaries and Coasts. 1150-1160.
2010 Bathymetry Retrieval from Hyperspectral Imagery in the Very Shallow Water Limit: A Case Study from the 2007 Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR '07) Multi-Sensor CampaignMarine Geodesy. 53-75.
2010 Benthic ecology from space: optics and net primary production cross the Great Bahama Bank from seagrass and benthic algaeMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 1-15.
2010 Increasing the accuracy of remotely sensed primary production estimates for the Arctic Ocean, using passive and active sensorsDeep Sea Res.. 1243-1254.
2010 Modeling the vertical distributions of downwelling plane irradiance and diffuse attenuation coefficient in optically deep watersJ. geophys. Res.. 14 pp.
2010 The widespread occurrence of coupled carbonate dissolution/reprecipitation in surface sediments on the Bahamas BankAmer. J. Science. 492-521.
2009 Biofouling and barnacle adhesion data for fouling-release coatings subjected to static immersion at seven marine sitesBiofouling. 331-344.
2009 Optics and remote sensing of Bahamian carbonate sediment whitings and potential relationship to wind-driven Langmuir circulationBiogeosciences. 487-500.
2009 Potential export of unattached benthic macroalgae to the deep sea through wind-driven Langmuir circulationGeophys. Res. Let..
2009 Potential transport of unattached benthic macroalgae to the deep sea through wind-driven Langmuir circulationGeophys. Res. Let..
2008 Net Primary production, growth and standing crop of Macrocystis pyrifera in Southern CaliforniaEcology. 2068.
2008 Rates of carbonate dissolution in permeable sediments estimated from pore-water profiles: the role of sea grassesLimnol. Oceanogr.. 549-565.
2007 Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) response to CO2 enrichment: possible impacts of climate change and potential for remediation of coastal habitatsMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 1-13.
2006 Dynamics of carbon allocation in a deep water population of the deciduous kelp, Pleurophycus gardneriMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 143-157.
2006 Red and black tides: Quantitative anaylsis of sea spectral reflectance and perceived color for phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter, and suspended sedimentsLimnol. Oceanogr.. 2646-2659.
2006 Top-down vs. bottom up effects in kelp forestsScience. 1737-1739.
2004 Widespread occurence of previously unreported intracellular crystals in Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex Koenig)Aquat. Bot.. 23-28.
2003 A biooptical model of irradiance distribution and photosynthesis in seagrass canopiesLimnol. Oceanogr.. 568-585.
2003 Effects of epiphyte load on optical properties and photosynthetic potential of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum Koenig and Zostera marina LLimnol. Oceanogr.. 456-463.
2003 Light harvesting and the package effect in Thalassia testudinum Koenig and Zostera marina L.: Optical constraints on photoacclimationAquat. Bot.. 261-274.
2003 Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imageryLimnol. Oceangr.. 444-455.
2002 Hyperspectral remote sensing of subtidal macrophytes in optically shallow waterLimnol. Oceanogr..
2002 Impact of seagrass density on carbonate dissolution in Bahamian sedimentsLimnol. Oceanogr.. 1751-1763.
2002 Photosynthesis, carbohydrate content and survival of eelgrass populations in a coastal lagoon and the adjacent open seaAquat. Bot.. 149-164.
2002 The effect of elevated levels of phaeophytin in natural waters on variable fluorescence measured from phytoplanktonJ. Plank. Res.. 1221-1229.
2001 Inorganic carbon sources for seagrass photosynthesis: an experimental evaluation for bicarbonate use in temperate speciesJ. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.. 203-217.
2001 Modeling underwater light climate in relation to sedimentation, resuspension, water quality and autotrophic growthHydrobiolgia. 25-42.
2001 Top-down impact through a bottom-up mechanism: in situ effects of limpet grazing on growth, light requirements and survival of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass)Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 127-140.
2000 Biofouling and barnacle adhesion data for fouling-releasing coatings subjected to static immersion at seven marine sitesBiofouling. 331-334.
2000 Cytometric quantification of nitrate reductase by immunolabeling in the marine diatom Skeletonema costatumCytometry. 173-178.
1999 Resource allocation and sucrose mobilization in light-limited eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 121-131.
1997 Impacts of CO2 -enrichment on productivity and light requirements of eelgrassPlant Physiol.. 599-607.
1997 Selection, design and delivery of environmentally benign antifouling agentsNav. Res. Rev. 51-59.
1996 Effect of light/dark transition on carbon translocation in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) seedlingsMarine Ecology Progress Series. 305-309.
1996 The photosynthetic response of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) to UVB radiationJ. Phycol.. 614-620.
1996 Top-down impact through a bottom-up mechanism: the effect of limpet grazing on growth, productivity and carbon allocation of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass)Oecol.. 560-567.
1995 Carbon partitioning in seagrass (Zostera marina L.): Regulation by photosynthesis and the role of daily light-dark cyclesPlant Physiol.. 1667-1671.
1995 Role of light availability on growth and metabolism of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) transplants in San Francisco BayAquat. Bot.. 67-86.
1994 Assessment of genetic diversity of seagrass populations using DNA fingerprinting: Implications for population stability and managementProc. Nat. Acad. Sci.. 1049-1053.
1994 Modeling daily production of aquatic macrophytes from irradiance measurements: a comparative analysisMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 185-196.
1993 Isolation of p-sulfoxy cinnamic acid from Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and the antifouling activity of phenolic acid sulfate estersPhytochemistry. 401-404.
1993 The antifouling activity of natural and synthetic phenolic acid sulphate estersPhytochem.. 401-404.
1992 Discovery of a fertile Pelagophycus x Macrocystis (Phaeophyta) hybrid and subsequent productions of F2 sporophytes in laboratory cultureJ. Phycol.. 127-130.
1992 Molecular and physiological response of diatoms to variable levels of irradiance and nitrogen availability. I. Growth of Skeletonema costatum in simulated upwelling conditionsLimnol. Oceanogr.. 989-1007.
1991 Assessment of environmental suitability for growth of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) in San Francisco BayAquat. Bot.. 345-352.
1991 Variation in nitrogen physiology and growth among geographically isolated populations of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta)J. Phycol.. 149-158.
1989 Thermal acclimation and whole plant carbon balance in Zostera marina L. (eelgrass)J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.. 93-109.
1988 Effects of long term anaerobiosis on carbon metabolism and respiration in roots of Zostera marina LEos. 1741.
1987 An evaluation of variance approximation techniques for non-linear photosynthesis-irradiance modelsMar. Biol.. 209-215.
1987 Is growth of eelgrass nitrogen limited?A modeling analysis of the effects of light and nitrogen on the growth dynamics of Zostera marinaMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 167-176.
1987 Modeling acceleration of nutrient uptake by phytoplankton in a coastal upwelling ecosystem: A modeling analysisLimnol. Oceanogr.. 359-367.
1986 In situ growth and chemical composition of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera: response to temporal changes in ambient nutrient availabilityMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.. 277-285.
1985 Effects of El Nino on local hydrography and growth of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera at Santa Catalina Island, CaliforniaLimnol. Oceanogr.. 1298-1302.
1984 Episodic nutrient supply to a kelp forest ecosystem in southern CaliforniaJ. Mar. Res.. 591-604.
1984 Influences of macronutrients and water temperatures on summertime survival of Macrocystis canopiesHydrobiologia. 419-424.
1983 Seasonal patterns in the productivity of a giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forest: the effect of nutrient availability. Ph.D. Dissertation..  182.
1979 Species of demersal zooplankton inhabiting a kelp forest ecosystem off Santa Catalina Island, CaliforniaBull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci.. 199-206.
1977 Adaptation of light harvesting pigments to downwelling light and the consequent photosynthetic performance of eulittoral rockweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosusMar. Biol.. 293-303.
Environmental and physiological influences on productivity and carbon isotope discrimination in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)Limnol. Oceanogr..


Year Title
2017 Systems Biology and the Seagrass Paradox: Adaptation, Acclimation and Survival of Marine Angiosperms in a Changing Ocean ClimateSystems of Marine Ecosystems. Springer.
2013 Chapter 18. Using oceanographic LIDAR to determine the vertial bio-optical structure of the upper oceanSubsea Optics and Imaging. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing.
2007 PhotosynthesisEncyclopedia of Tidepools and Rocky Shores. Berkeley: University of California Press.
2006 Chapter 12. Aquatic optics: basic concepts for understanding how light affects seagrasses and makes them measurable from spaceSeagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation. Springer.
2006 Chapter 13. Light and photosynthesis in seagrass meadowsSeagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation. Springer.
2002 Chapter 8. Primary ProducersChanges in a California estuary. A profile of Elkhorn Slough. Moss Landing, California, USA: Elkhorn Slough Foundation.
2002 Stimulating eelgrass production with industiral flue gas: Eco-engineering for habitat remediation and purposeful carbon storageInternational Workshop for the SEECS (Seagrass Ecosystem Ecoengineering and Carbon Sequestration) Project. University of Toyko, Japan: Graduate School of Frontier Science.
2000 Environmentally acceptable control of microbial biofilmsBiofilms: recent advances in their study and control. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
1990 Seagrass revegetation: developing a predictive model of light requirements for Zostera marinaProc. 2nd Calif. Eelgrass Symp.. National City, CA: Sweetwater River Press.
1983 Modeling Kelp GrowthThe Effects of Waste Discharge on Kelp Communities. Long Beach, CA: SCCWRP.

Conference Papers

Year Title
2017 Remote Sensing of Optical Characteristics and Particle Distributions of the Upper Ocean Using Shipboard Lidar
2017 Spectroscopy for global observation of coastal and inland aquatic habitats.  3051-3054.
2016 Bio-optical assessment of giant kelp productivity
2016 Exploiting LIDAR to retrieve particle distributions of the upper ocean
2016 Exploiting in situ lidar to retrieve particle distributions and characteristics of the upper ocean
2016 In situ oceanographic lidar as a tool for retrieving and characterizing particle distributions in the ocean
2016 The effects of turbulence on light exposure in a large-lake surface mixed-layer: a preliminary in-situ dual-dye study
2014 The impact of increasing dissolved CO2 concentration on photoacclimation of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)
2012 Bio-Optical Modeling of SAV Habitat Requirements: Improving predictions of Water Quality Impacts on a Critical Marine Resource
2012 Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Arctic surface waters: implications for solar heating
2011 Combined Impacts of Climate Warming and Ocean Carbonation on Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)
2011 Combined impacts of climate warming and ocean carbonation on seagrass: from observation to prediction. INVITED PRESENTATION
2011 Exploring the utility of the broadband ultispectral sensor WorldView 2 for investigation of nearshore coastal environments
2011 The optical properties of Florida Bay: Impacts for Seagrass Productivity
2010 Benthic Ecology From Space: Using Remote Sensing to Understand Biogeochemical Fluxes in Nearshore Coastal Environments
2010 Merging active and passive ocean sensors to improve retrieval of primary production in the Arctic Ocean
2009 Effect of Remote Sensing Image Resolution on the Retrieval of Biomass and Productivity Estimates for Giant Kelp Forests
2008 Primary productivity patterns in the Arctic: the 10 year SeaWiFS record
2008 The influence of sea ice on arctic ocean marine primary production: regional responses
2007 Improving seagrass and ecosystem management with high resolution water quality instrumentation
2007 The Red Edge: Exploring high near-infrared reflectance of phytoplankton and the implications for scattering
2006 Remote Sensing Assessment of Kelp Forest and Seagrass Meadow Productivity
2006 Remote sensing assessment of kelp forest productivity
2005 Use of remotely sensed ocean color to retrieve biogeochemical properties in the lower Chesapeake Bay
1997 Radiative transfer within seagrass canopies: impact on carbon budgets and light requirements.  331-336.
1993 Modeling daily carbon gain of aquatic macrophytes from quantum flux measurements: A comparative analysis.  169-195.
1991 Exploitation of ecological growth models for management of seagrass resources

Research Overview

  • Ecological physiology of marine photosynthesis, metabolic regulation of carbon and nutrient dynamics in marine ecosystems, radiative transfer and remote sensing of optically shallow waters, ecosystem productivity and numerical modeling.
  • Grants

  • Quantification of Blue Carbon Burial in Seagrass Ecosystems and the Impact of Projected Climate Change  awarded by National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2017 - 2019
  • Collaborative Research: Toward An Improved Understanding of Blue Carbon: The Role of Seegrasses In Sequestering Co2  awarded by National Science Foundation 2016 - 2019
  • Collaborative Research: Toward an Improved Understanding of Blue Carbon: The Role of Seagrasses in Sequestering CO  awarded by National Science Foundation 2016 - 2019
  • Collaborative Research: Toward an improved understanding of blue carbon: The role of seagrasses in sequestering CO2  awarded by NSF Biological Oceanography 2016 - 2019
  • Quantif Blue Carbon Burial in Seagrass Ecosys & Impact Projected Climate Change  awarded by NASA-Headquarters 2017 - 2018
  • Image Analysis of Biofouling Test Panels  awarded by Excet, Inc. 2016 - 2017
  • Chesapeake Bay Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Habitat Requirement and Restoration Targets: A THIRD Technical Synthesi  awarded by Maryland Dept. Natural Resources 2014 - 2016
  • Modeling the impacts of water quality on SAV and other living resources in the tidal Chesapeake Bay  awarded by US Environmental Protection Agency 2014 - 2016
  • MRI Acquisition of a Hybrid Mass Spectrometer System for the Next Generation of Multidisciplinary Geosciences Research, Student Education and Training Funding Agency: National Science Foundation  awarded by National Science Foundation 2012 - 2015
  • Collaborative Research: Impact Of Climate Warming and Ocean Carbonation On Eelgrass (Zostera marina)  awarded by National Science Foundation 2011 - 2015
  • Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Photoprotective Mechanisms and Carbon Partitioning in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)  awarded by Virginia Sea Grant 2012 - 2014
  • Remote Assessment of Florida Seagrass Abundance, Bathymetry and Prop Scarring from WV2 Imagery – St George Sound  awarded by Florida DNR/ Florida Environmental Research Institute 2012 - 2013
  • Integrated Modeling of SAV Habitat Requirements: Improving Predictions of Water Quality and Land Use Impacts on a Critical Marine Resource  awarded by Virginia Sea Grant 2011 - 2013
  • Construction and testing of an in situ LIDAR Instrument  awarded by NASA/SSAI/SAIC 2010 - 2011
  • Remote Assessment of Florida Seagrass Abundance, Bathymetry and Prop Scarring from WV2 Imagery Dekle Beach and St Joseph/’s Bay  awarded by Florida DNR/Florida Environmental Research Institute 2010 - 2011
  • Remote Assessment of Giant Kelp Dynamics – The Engineer of California’s Nearshore Ecosystems  awarded by NASA 2007 - 2011
  • Statement of Work for CALIPSO-ROSES Proposal  awarded by SSAI 2010
  • Evaluate the Utility of CALIPSO Data for Ocean Color Application  awarded by NASA 2008 - 2010
  • Increase in SOW: CALIPSO/ROSES: Construction of an in-situ LIDAR System  awarded by SAIC 2008 - 2010
  • Producing an updated synthesis of the Arctic’s marine primary production regime and its controls.  awarded by NSF 2006 - 2009
  • Bethnic Ecology from Space  awarded by NASA 2005 - 2008
  • CI-CORE  awarded by NOAA 2004 - 2008
  • Sea-Truth Support for Hyperspectral Overflights of St. Joe's Bay, Florida  awarded by FERI 2006 - 2007
  • Carbonate Dissolution in Shallow Water Tropical Sediments  awarded by NSF 2002 - 2005
  • Impact of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation on Radiative Transfer and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing in Optically Shallow Waters  awarded by ONR 2001 - 2003
  • Envorinmental determinants of tropical seagrass meadow productivity and distribution  awarded by NOAA 2002
  • Feasibility Study of an Ecoengineering-based Method to increase atmospheric CO2 fixation into a marine ecosystem  awarded by NEDO-Japan 1999 - 2002
  • Seagrass Restoration by Co2 Enrichment  awarded by NOAA-NERRS 2001
  • Adhesive Properties of Coatings Containing Surface-Immobolized Zosteric Acid and Analogs  awarded by Phycogen Inc. 2000 - 2001
  • Radiative Transfer in Submerged Macrophyte Canopies  awarded by ONR 1999 - 2001
  • Genetic Modification of Yeast cells for Genetic Transformation of Yeast for Biosensor Technology  awarded by Arete Assoc., Inc. 1998 - 2001
  • Seagrass Restoration by Co2 Enrichment  awarded by NOAA-NERRS 2000
  • Domoic Acid Biosynthesis in Marine Diatoms  awarded by California SeaGrant 1998 - 2000
  • In Water Remote Sensing of Benthic Reflectance from Vegetated Environments  awarded by ONR 1999
  • Reflectance from Vegetated Enviroment  awarded by ONR 1999
  • Radiative Transfer in Submerged Seagrass Canopies  awarded by ONR 1996 - 1999
  • Nontoxic Antifouling Properties of Zosteric Acid: Potential Biomedical Applications  awarded by NWRI 1997
  • modeling the impacts of water quality on SAV and other living resources  awarded by EPA 2014 -
  • Expertise Keywords

  • Biology : ecological plant physiology, systems ecology, marine biology
  • Climate Change : ocean acidification, global warming
  • Environmental Issues : water quality, climate change, ocean productivity
  • Oceanography : plant physiology, photosynthesis, environmental optics, remote sensing, electronics, instrumentation, statistics
  • Plants : photosynthesis, physiology & ecology
  • Remote Sensing : ocean color, LIDAR, coastal ecosystems
  • Education And Training

  • Ph.D. in Biological Sciences, University of Southern California 1983
  • M.S. in Biological Sciences, University of Southern California 1979
  • B.S. in Biological Sciences, University of Southern California 1975
  • Full Name

  • Richard Zimmerman