Selected Publications

Articles In Academic Journals

Year Title
2018 Moderate heat application enhances the efficacy of nanosecond pulse stimulation for the treatment of squamous cell carcinomaTechnology in Cancer Research & Treatment. 1-9.
2017 Electrotransfer of plasmid DNA radiosensitizes B16F10 tumors through activation of immune responseRadiology and oncology. 30.
2017 Transfection by ElectroporationCurrent Protocols in Immunology.
2015 Activated air produced by shielded sliding discharge plasma mediates plasmid DNA delivery to mammalian cellsBiotechnol Bioeng. 2583-2590.
2015 Controlled Gene Delivery Enhances Therapeutic Outcome for cancer Immune TherapyCurrent Gene Therapy. 32-43.
2015 Ozone-free niric oxide production using an atmospheric pressure surface discharge – A way to minimize nitrogen dioxide co-productionChemical Engineering Journal.
2015 Surface plasmas versus volume plasmas – energy deposition and ozone generation in air and oxygenPlasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing. 697-704.
2014 A protective effect after clearance of orthotopic rat hepatocellular carcinoma by nanosecond pulsed electric fields.European Journal of Cancer. 2705-2713.
2014 Application of increased temperature from an exogenous source to enhance gene electrotransferBioelectrochemistry. 120-123.
2014 Coupled Sliding Discharges: A Scalable Nonthermal Plasma System Utilizing Positive and Negative Streamers on Opposite Sides of a Dielectric LayerPlasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing. 871-886.
2014 Coupled surface dielectric barrier discharge reactor-ozone synthesis and nitric oxide conversion from airChemical Engineering Journal. 222-229.
2014 Electrochemotherapy: from the drawing board into medical practiceBioMedical Engineering OnLine. 29.
2014 Gene Electro transfer of plasmid encoding VEGF For Enhanced Expression and Perfusion in the Ischemic Swine HeartPLOS ONE. e115235.
2014 Gene electrotransfer enhanced by nanosecond pulsed electric fieldsMolecular Therapy:Methods and Clinical Development. 14043.
2014 Prevention of distal flap necrosis in a rat random flap model by gene electrotransfer delivering VEGF165 plasmid.J Gene Medicine. 55-65.
2014 Shielded sliding discharge-assisted hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction of NOx over Ag/Al2O3 catalysts using diesel as a reductantPlasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing. 825-836.
2013 Assessment of delivery parameters with the multi-electrode array for development of a DNA vaccine against Bacillus anthracisBioelectrochemistry. 1-6.
2013 Delivery of Interleukin-15 to B16 Melanoma by Electroporation Leads to Tumor Regression and Long-term SurvivalTechnology in Cancer Research & Treatment.
2013 Electroporation-mediated gene transfer directly to the swine heartGene Therapy. 151-7.
2013 Topical gene electrotransfer to the epidermis by non-invasive multielectrode arrayPLOS ONE. e73423.
2013 Topical gene electrotransfer to the epidermis of hairless guinea pig by non-invasive multielectrode arrayPLOS ONE. e73423.
2012 The use of an in vitro 3D melanoma model to predict in vivo plasmid transfection using electroporationBiomaterials. 3036-46.
2011 Electro-gene transfer to skin using a noninvasive multielectrode arrayJournal of controlled release. 256-62.
2011 Electroporation based gene therapy–from the bench to the bedsideConference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference. 736-8.
2011 Evaluation of a novel non-penetrating electrode for use in DNA vaccinationPLOS ONE. e19181.
2011 Evaluation of delivery conditions for cutaneous plasmid electrotransfer using a multielectrode arrayGene Therapy. 496-500.
2011 Subnanosecond electric pulses cause membrane permeabilization and cell deathIEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering. 1239-45.
2011 Transfection by electroporationCurrent protocols in neuroscience / editorial board, Jacqueline N. Crawley ... [et al.]. 1E.
2010 Anti-cancer activity of the HIV accessory molecule viral protein R (Vpr): Delivery as a DNA expression plasmid or biologically active peptidesVaccine. 2005-10.
2010 Bioelectric applications for treatment of melanoma.Cancers. 1731-70.
2010 Increased perfusion and angiogenesis in a hindlimb ischemia model with plasmid FGF-2 delivered by noninvasive electroporationGene Therapy. 763-9.
2010 Transfection by electroporationCurrent protocols in molecular biology / edited by Frederick M. Ausubel ... [et al.]. Unit9 3.
2009 Analysis of the potential for HIV-1 Vpr as an anti-cancer agentCurrent HIV research. 144-52.
2009 Electroporation for the delivery of DNA-based vaccines and immunotherapeutics: current clinical developmentsMolecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 585-92.
2009 Generation of a tumor spheroid in a microgravity environment as a 3D model of melanomaIn vitro cellular & developmental biology. Animal. 523-34.
2009 Intradermal delivery of plasmid VEGF(165) by electroporation promotes wound healingMolecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 651-7.
2008 Phase I trial of interleukin-12 plasmid electroporation in patients with metastatic melanomaJournal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 5896-903.
2007 Enhancement of anti-melanoma activity of a plasmid expressing HIV-1 Vpr delivered through in vivo electroporationCancer biology & therapy. 1269-75.
2007 Functional analysis of the hepatic HMG-CoA reductase promoter by in vivo electroporationExperimental Biology and Medicine. 353-61.
2006 Complete regression of established subcutaneous B16 murine melanoma tumors after delivery of an HIV-1 Vpr-expressing plasmid by in vivo electroporationMolecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 647-55.
2006 Regression of subcutaneous B16 melanoma tumors after intratumoral delivery of an IL-15-expressing plasmid followed by in vivo electroporationCancer Gene Therapy. 969-74.
2004 Electrically mediated plasmid DNA delivery to solid tumors in vivoMethods in molecular biology. 237-44.
2004 Regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses by Stat-3 signaling in tumor cellsNature medicine. 48-54.
2003 Electroporation as a method for the efficient in vivo delivery of therapeutic genesDNA and cell biology. 753.
2003 IL-12 gene therapy using an electrically mediated nonviral approach reduces metastatic growth of melanomaDNA and cell biology. 755-63.
2002 Constitutive Stat3 activity up-regulates VEGF expression and tumor angiogenesisOncogene. 2000-8.
2002 Effect of electrically mediated intratumor and intramuscular delivery of a plasmid encoding IFN alpha on visible B16 mouse melanomasTechnology in Cancer Research & Treatment. 205-9.
2002 Effect of electrochemotherapy on muscle and skinTechnology in Cancer Research & Treatment. 385-92.
2002 Electrochemotherapy for the treatment of human sarcoma in athymic ratsTechnology in Cancer Research & Treatment. 393-9.
2002 Overview of electroporationTechnology in Cancer Research & Treatment. 317-8.
2002 The development of electroporationScience. 277.
2001 Effects of electrochemotherapy with bleomycin on normal liver tissue in a rat modelEuropean Journal of Cancer. 414-21.
2001 Immunomodulation by electrically enhanced delivery of plasmid DNA encoding IL-12 to murine skeletal muscleMolecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 47-53.
2001 In vivo electroporation using an exponentially enhanced pulse: a new waveformDNA and cell biology. 183-8.
2001 Intradermal delivery of interleukin-12 plasmid DNA by in vivo electroporationDNA and cell biology. 21-6.
2001 Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in a rat model using electrochemotherapyEuropean Journal of Cancer. 422-30.
2000 Clinical trials for solid tumors using electrochemotherapyMethods in molecular medicine. 137-56.
2000 Delivery of genes in vivo using pulsed electric fieldsMethods in molecular medicine. 173-86.
2000 Electrically mediated reporter gene transfer into normal rat liver tissueMethods in molecular medicine. 333-8.
2000 Electrochemotherapy for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma in a rat modelMethods in molecular medicine. 299-303.
2000 Electrochemotherapy of murine melanoma using intratumor drug administrationMethods in molecular medicine. 253-7.
2000 In vivo electroporation of plasmids encoding GM-CSF or interleukin-2 into existing B16 melanomas combined with electrochemotherapy induces long-term antitumour immunityMelanoma research. 577-83.
2000 Theory and in vivo application of electroporative gene deliveryMolecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 178-87.
2000 Toxicity of anticancer agents mediated by electroporation in vitroAnti-cancer drugs. 201-8.
2000 Treatment of liver malignancies with electrochemotherapy in a rat modelMethods in molecular medicine. 319-26.
1999 Clinical applications of electrochemotherapyAdvanced drug delivery reviews. 119-129.
1999 Electrically enhanced drug delivery for the treatment of soft tissue sarcomaCancer. 409-17.
1999 Electrically mediated drug delivery for treating subcutaneous and orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma in a hamster modelAnticancer Research. 989-94.
1999 Gene therapy with dominant-negative Stat3 suppresses growth of the murine melanoma B16 tumor in vivoCancer research. 5059-63.
1999 In vivo gene delivery by electroporationAdvanced drug delivery reviews. 131-137.
1998 Effective treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous malignant tumours by electrochemotherapyBritish Journal of Cancer. 2336-42.
1998 Flow cytometric detection and quantitation of cell-cell electrofusion productsMethods in molecular biology. 149-56.
1998 Treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors with electrochemotherapy using intralesional bleomycinCancer. 148-57.
1997 Effective treatment of B16 melanoma by direct delivery of bleomycin using electrochemotherapyMelanoma research. 10-8.
1997 Electrochemotherapy: an emerging drug delivery method for the treatment of cancerAdvanced drug delivery reviews. 185-197.
1997 In vivo antitumor effects of electrochemotherapy in a hepatoma modelBiochimica et biophysica acta. 15-8.
1997 Novel electrode designs for electrochemotherapyBiochimica et biophysica acta. 9-14.
1996 Bleomycin-mediated electrochemotherapy of basal cell carcinomaJournal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 82-6.
1996 Bleomycin-mediated electrochemotherapy of metastatic melanomaArchives of dermatology. 1353-7.
1996 Enhanced effects of multiple treatment electrochemotherapyMelanoma research. 427-33.
1996 In vivo gene electroinjection and expression in rat liverFEBS letters. 225-8.
1996 Phase I/II trial for the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors using electrochemotherapyCancer. 964-71.
1996 The tumor biology of melanoma nodal metastasesThe American Surgeon. 81-8.
1995 Accurate Nodal Staging of Malignant MelanomaCancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center. 405-414.
1995 Biomedical Applications of Electric Pulses with Special Emphasis on Antitumor ElectrochemotherapyBioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics. 203-207.
1995 Cytometric detection and quantitation of cell-cell electrofusion productsMethods in molecular biology. 355-63.
1995 Spectrofluorometric assay for cell-tissue electrofusionMethods in molecular biology. 341-53.
1995 The Accurate Staging and Modern-Day Treatment of Malignant-MelanomaCancer Research Therapy & Control. 183-197.
1995 The identification and mapping of melanoma regional nodal metastases: minimally invasive surgery for the diagnosis of nodal metastasesThe American Surgeon. 97-101.
1995 The role of selective lymphadenectomy in the management of patients with malignant melanomaDermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]. 979-83.
1995 Treatment of B16 Mouse Melanoma with the Combination of Electropermeabilization and ChemotherapyBioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics. 83-87.
1995 Treatment of cutaneous nodules using electrochemotherapyThe Journal of the Florida Medical Association. 147-50.
1994 Detection and Quantitation of Cell-Cell Electrofusion Products by Flow-CytometryAnalytical biochemistry. 271-275.
1994 Detection of submicroscopic lymph node metastases with polymerase chain reaction in patients with malignant melanomaAnnals of surgery. 768-74.
1994 Mechanically facilitated cell-cell electrofusionBiophysical Journal. 1574-81.
1994 The orderly progression of melanoma nodal metastasesAnnals of surgery. 759-67.
1993 Identification of submicroscopic lymph node metastases in patients with malignant melanomaSeminars in surgical oncology. 285-9.
1993 The Role of Polymeric Surface Smoothness of Biliary Stents in Bacterial Adherence, Biofilm Deposition, and Stent OcclusionGastrointestinal endoscopy. 422-425.
1992 Detection of Occult Lymph-Node Metastases in Malignant-MelanomaAnnals of plastic surgery. 74-77.
1992 Spectrofluorometric assay for the quantitation of cell-tissue electrofusionAnalytical biochemistry. 286-92.
1991 Detection of submicroscopic lymph node metastases in patients with melanomaArchives of surgery. 1455.
1991 Electric-Field Distribution during Cell-Tissue ElectrofusionProceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Ieee Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Vol 13, Pts 1-5. 950-950.
1991 Simplex Optimization Applied to Electrofusion BiotechnologyProceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Ieee Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Vol 13, Pts 1-5. 951-951.
1990 Transfer of human membrane surface components by incorporating human cells into intact animal tissue by cell-tissue electrofusion in vivoBiochimica et biophysica acta. 185-8.
1989 Electrofusion of individual animal cells directly to intact corneal epithelial tissueBiochimica et biophysica acta. 9-14.
Plasma activated air mediates plasmid DNA delivery in vivoMolecular Therapy:Methods and Clinical Development. 7.
Recellularized human dermis for testing gene electro transfer ex vivoBiomedical Materials. 9.
Thermal assisted in vivo gene electrotransferCurrent Gene Therapy. 83-89.


Year Title
2000 Electrochemotherapy, electrogenetherapy, and transdermal drug delivery.  New York: Humana Press.
1998 Flow Cytometry Protocols.  New York: Humana Press.


Year Title
2017 Gene transfer to the skin by physical methods of deliveryPercutaneous penetration enhancers physical methods in penetration enhancement. Springer.
2014 ELECTROTRANSFER/ELECTROPORATION FOR NON-VIRAL NUCLEIC ACID DELIVERYGene Transfer, Gene Therapy and Genetic Pharmacology. Imperial College Press.
2014 Electroporation Gene TherapyGene Therapy of Cancer, Third Edition. Elsevier.
2013 Electroporation Gene TherapyGene Therapy of Cancer: Translational Approaches from Preclinical Studies to Clinical Implementation. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Inc..
2011 Clinical Aspects of ElectroporationClinical Aspects of Electroporation. Springer.
2011 Gene Electrotransfer to TumorElectroporation in Science and Medicine. NY, NY: Springer-Verlag.
2010 Translation of electroporation mediated DNA delivery to the clinicAdvanced Electroporation Techniques in Biology and Medicine. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
2004 Electrically mediated plasmid DNA delivery to solid tumorsGene Delivery to Mammalian Cells: Methods and Protocols. New York: Humana Press.
1992 Development of cell-tissue electrofusion for biological applicationsGuide to electroporation and electrofusion. Academic Press.
1992 Model System for the Study of Gonorrhea Created by Cell-Tissue ElectrofusionCharge and Field Effects in Biosystems—3. Boston, MA: Birkhauser.

Conference Papers

Year Title
2012 Electroporation based gene therapy--from the bench to the bedside.  736-8.

Education And Training

  • Ph.D. in Medical Sciences, University of South Florida 1989
  • M.S. in Medical Sciences, University of South Florida 1988
  • M.S. in Health Sciences, Long Island University - C.W. Post Center 1984
  • B.S. in Microbiology, Oregon State University 1979
  • Full Name

  • Richard Heller