Overview

  • Dr. Frederic (Rick) D. McKenzie is a professor and department chair of the Modeling, Simulation and Viusalization Engineering at Old Dominion University where he currently serves as Principal Investigator (PI) and Co-PI on projects involving software architectures for simulation, behavior representation in simulations, and medical modeling and simulation.To date, his projects in these areas have led to several publications relating research in modeling human-like intelligent agents including crowds, formal descriptions of distributed simulation architectures, objective measures of successful prostate surgery, and augmenting standardized patients. Many of these projects also involve virtual reality and scientific visualization.Dr. McKenzie received his Ph.D. in computer engineering from the University of Central Florida in 1994. Prior to joining ODU, he held a senior scientist position at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), serving as Principal Investigator for several distributed simulation projects. At SAIC he was a Team Lead on a large distributed simulation system. Before joining SAIC, Dr. McKenzie worked as a student researcher on research projects involving both NASA Kennedy Space Center and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. He has several years of research and development experience in the software and artificial intelligence fields, including object-oriented design and knowledge-based systems. Both his M.S. and Ph.D. work have been in artificial intelligence - focusing on knowledge representation and model-based diagnostic reasoning.
  • Selected Publications

    Articles In Academic Journals

    Year Title
    2016 An External Severity Index for Quantifying Pectus Excavatum Validated Using Pre- and Post-Operative CTJournal of Pediatric Surgical Specialties. 27.
    2016 Deep Models for Engagement Assessment With Scarce Label InformationIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems.
    2016 Pre- and postoperative Nuss procedure CT analysis to assess pectus excavatum indicesJournal of Pediatric Surgical Specialties. 42.
    2016 Utilizing Pre- and Postoperative CT to Validate an Instrument for Quantifying Pectus Excavatum Severity,” Theory, Methodology, Tools and Applications for Modeling and Simulation of Complex Systems, Volume 645 of the series Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS), L. Zhang et al. (Eds.)AsiaSim.
    2015 Design and Comparison of Immersive Interactive Learning and Instructional Techniques for 3D Virtual LaboratoriesPRESENCE Journal. 93-112.
    2015 Simulation of the critical steps of the Nuss procedureComputer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization. 189-203.
    2014 Medical Simulation: Utilize, Inspire, Embrace, VerifyInternational Journal of Medicine & Surgery.
    2014 Simulation of the Critical Steps of the Nuss ProcedureComputer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization. 1-15.
    2013 An Empirical Muscle Intracellular Action Potential Model with Multiple Erlang Probability Density Functions based on a Modified Newton MethodBiomedical Engineering and Computational Biology. 33-42.
    2013 Designing Natural-Tooth-Shaped Dental Implants based on Soft-Kill Option OptimizationComputer-Aided Design and Applications. 59-72.
    2013 Development and validation methodology of the Nuss procedure surgical plannerSimulation. 1474-1488.
    2013 Evaluation of Fatigue for a Pectus Bar Removal Surgical Tool Design for a Safe Clinical Practice Use SettingComputer-Aided Design and Applications. 73-81.
    2013 High-Dimensional MRI Data Analysis using a Large-Scale Manifold Learning ApproachMachine Vision and Applications. 995-1014.
    2013 Large-Scale Manifold Learning Using an Adaptive Sparse Neighbor Selection Approach for Brain Tumor Progression PredictionSpringer International Publishing. 219-226.
    2013 Patient Specific Modeling of Pectus Excavatum for the Nuss Procedure SimulationSpringer International Publishing. 113-125.
    2013 Simulation and mathematical programming decision-making support for smallholder farmingEnvironment Systems and Decisions. 427-439.
    2012 Application of CAD Analysis to Update the Design for a Pectus Excavatum Bar Extraction ToolComputer-Aided Design and Applications. 227-234.
    2012 Combining Prostate Cancer Region Predictions from MALDI Spectra Processing and Texture AnalysisSimulation. 1247-1259.
    2012 Designing Natural-Tooth-Shaped Dental Implants based on Soft-Kill Option OptimizationComputer-Aided Design and Applications. 59-72.
    2011 A Large-Scale Manifold Learning Approach for Brain Tumor Progression PredictionMachine Learning in Medical Imaging, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 265-272.
    2011 An Integrated Computer-Aided Robotic System for Dental ImplantationThe MIDAS Journal - Systems and Architectures for Computer Assisted Interventions 2011. Selected papers from the 14th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI 2011). 1-8.
    2011 Automated Dental Implantation Using Image-guided Robotics – Registration ResultsInternational Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery. 627-634.
    2011 Real-Time Sonography Simulaiton for Medical TrainingInternational Journal of Education and Informaiton Technologies. 199-209.
    2008 An Anomaly-based Algorithm to Detect Compromised Nodes in Wireless Sensor NetworksInternational Journal of Computer and Information Science. 11-20.
    2008 Integrating Crowd-Behavior Modeling into Military Simulation using Game TechnologySimulation & Gaming Journal: Special Issue on Intelligent agents, artificial intelligence, and simulation gaming. 10-38.
    2007 Computer Modeling Technology to Assess Extra-Capsular Tissue Coverage of Whole Mount Sections after Retropubic and Laparoscopic Radical ProstatectomyJournal of Urology. 1301-1305.
    2007 Identifying Ambiguous Prostate Gland Contours from Histology Using Capsule Shape Information and Least Squares Curve FittingInternational Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery. 143-150.
    2004 Training in peacekeeping operations using virtual environmentsIEEE Computer Graphics & Applications: Projects in VR. 18-21.
    2003 Generating nonverbal indicators of deception in virtual reality trainingJournal of WSCG. 314-321.
    2003 Nonverbal indicators of malicious intent: Affective components for interrogative virtual reality trainingInternational Journal of Human-Computer Studies. 237-244.
    Prediciton of Brain Tumor Progression Using Multiple Histogram Matched MRI ScansSPIE Medical Imaging. 7.

    Chapters

    Year Title
    2014 Improvement of a Virtual Pivot for Minimally Invasive Surgery Simulators Using Haptic AugmentationAugmented Environments for Computer-Assisted Interventions. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
    2014 Patient Specific Modeling of Pectus Excavatum for the Nuss Procedure SimulationLecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

    Conference Papers

    Year Title
    2017 A Flexible Microfluidic-based Sensor for Monitoring the Bending and Tilting of a Metal Bar for Pectus Excavatum (PE) Patients
    2017 An Instrument for Assessing Chest Wall Deformities and Improvements
    2017 An agent-based simulation of the impact of yogic breathing adoption
    2017 Continuous Improvement for a Unique Modeling and Simulation Engineering Program
    2017 Development of a Hybrid Virtual/Physical Nuss Procedure Surgical Trainer
    2017 Simulating the Impact of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga in Hampton Roads
    2016 External Severity Indices for Quantifying Pectus Excavatum Validated Using Pre- and Postoperative CT Analysis
    2016 Investigating the Fidelity of an Improvement-Assessment Tool After One Vacuum Bell Treatment Session
    2016 Process Modeling for Simulation: Observations and Open Issues
    2016 Validation of an objective assessment instrument for non-surgical treatments of chest wall deformities.  273-280.
    2015 A Successful EAC-ABET Accredited Undergraduate Program in Modeling and Simulation Engineering (M&SE)
    2015 An Accredited Engineering Curriculum for Modeling and Simulation
    2015 An Architecture to Support Integrated Manikin-Based Simulation
    2015 An agent based model to simulate farmer decision process.  53-60.
    2015 Collaborative Virtual Environment For Engineering Laboratory.  157-163.
    2015 EAC-ABET Assessment and Continuous Improvement Processes of a Novel Undergraduate Program in Modeling and Simulation Engineering
    2015 Mobile Application for Objective Measurement of Pectus Excavatum Vacuum Bell Treatment
    2015 Optimal Crop Selection and Scheduling Using a Generic Crop Growth Model and Integer Programming Model
    2015 Real-Time ECG Rendering on Mobile Devices for Ecg-Based Virtual Pathology Stethoscope Tracking
    2015 Towards a Hybrid Virtual/Physical Nuss Procedure Surgical Simulator
    2014 A mathematical model for representing farmer decision processes
    2014 Combining 3D printing and CT scanning in the production of obstetrical ultrasound phantoms for undergraduate medical education.  196-197.
    2014 Developing Clinically Relevant Aspects of the Nuss Procedure Surgical Simulator.  51-55.
    2014 Improvement of a Virtual Pivot for Minimally Invasive Surgical Simulators using Haptic Augmentation
    2014 Incorporating reflection for real-time multi-configuration haptic-interactive virtual environments
    2014 Modeling Insertion Point for General Purpose Haptic Device Simulations for Minimally Invasive Surgeries
    2014 Poster: Modeling insertion point for general purpose haptic device simulations for minimally invasive surgeries
    2014 Validation of an ECG-Based Stethoscope Tracking Technology
    2013 A noninvasive method to determine the optimal time for Nuss bar removal: A preliminary study
    2013 Analysis of Generic Crop Growth Model for Use in Decision Support Systems for Farmers
    2013 Validation of Surface 3D Scanning for Measurement of Postsurgical Improvement following Nuss Procedure for Pectus Excavatum
    2012 A Comparison of Robotic Milling Designs for Autonomous Dental Implantation
    2012 Finite Element Analysis of Deformation of Bars Used to Correct Pectus Excavatum in Children
    2012 Implementation and Assessment of a Virtual Reality Experiment in the Undergraduate Themo-fluids Laboratory
    2011 A Design for Simulating and Validating the Nuss Procedure for the Minimally Invasive Correction of Pectus Excavatum.  473-475.
    2011 A strategy for simulating and validating the Nuss procedure for the minimally invasive correction of pectus excavatum
    2011 Blood Glucose Individualized Prediction for Type 2 Diabetes using iPhone Application
    2011 Fuzzy logic injury design for crowd modeling
    2011 Prediction of Brain Tumor Progression using a Machine Learning Technique
    2011 Using EKG Signals for Virtual Pathology Stethoscope Tracking in Standardized Patient Heart Auscultation.  1-2.
    2010 Adjacent Slice Prostate Cancer Prediction to Inform MALDI Imaging Biomarker Analysis
    2010 Development of an average chest shape for objective evaluation of the aesthetic outcome in the Nuss procedure planning process.  528-531.
    2010 EEG Artifact Removal Using A Wavelet Neural Network
    2010 HealthiManage: An individualized prediction algorithm for type 2 diabetes chronic disease control.  67-70.
    2010 Multi Agent Design and Implementation of Crowd Injury Model.  114-121.
    2010 Optimized surgical tool for pectus bar extraction
    2010 PSTK: A Graphic Tool for Prostate Specimen Analysis and Visualization
    2010 Prediction of Brain Tumor Progression using a Machine Learning Technique
    2009 Investigating an approach to identifying the biomechanical differences between intercostal cartilage in subjects with pectus excavatum and normals in vivo: preliminary assessment of normal subjects
    2009 Prostate Cancer Biomarker Identification: A Comparative Study
    2007 Detecting Compromised Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks
    2007 Incorporating a PMF-Based Injury Model into a Multi-Agent Representation of Crowd Behavior
    2006 A simulation-based training system for surgical wound debridement. Medicine meets virtual reality.  491-496.
    2003 A Virtual Environment for Training Military Checkpoint Guards. Proceedings of the Human Factors &Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Meeting.  2074-2078.

    Research Overview

  • Dr. McKenzie’s research is focused on three topics: a) Medical modeling and simulation, b) Human Behavior representation, and c) Software architectures for simulation. To date, various projects in these areas have led to many publications relating research in augmenting standardized patients for medical training and assessment, modeling human-like intelligent agents especially crowds, and formal descriptions of distributed simulation architectures. Many of these projects also involve virtual reality and scientific visualization.
  • Grants

  • Creating the Fleet Maker: An Informal STEM Learning Environment to Stimulate Innovative Thinking, Broaden Participation in STEM, and Empower All Sailors to Become Aware of the Possibilities Available through STEM Learning  awarded by Office of Naval Research 2016 - 2019
  • A virtual reality augmented reality lab industrial appl. shipbuil  awarded by Office of Naval Research 2017 - 2018
  • CWIG Meeting Technology Enhancements And Preparations  awarded by Children's Surgical Specialty Group, Inc. 2016 - 2017
  • Pectus 3D Scanner Tool For Korean Clinical Team  awarded by Yonsei University College of Medicine 2016
  • Project AIM –Increasing STEM Major Persistence and Enhancing Student Learning  awarded by Howard Hughes Medical Institute - 2013
  • Engineering Laboratory Instruction in Immersive Virtual Environments (ENLIIVEN) 2011 - 2012
  • Nuss Procedure Simulator Planner  awarded by CHKD- Children’s Surgical Specialty Group (CSSG) 2010 - 2012
  • Communication Outcomes for Naming Treatments in Aphasia: Administrative Supplement.  awarded by National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders) 2009 - 2010
  • Modeling and Simulation Solutions for Standardized Patients: Selection, Refinement, and Augmentation  awarded by EVMS 2009 - 2010
  • An Efficient Feature Selection Algorithm for Biomarker Identification  awarded by National Institutes of Health (NIH) 2008 - 2010
  • The National Center for Collaboration in Medical Modeling and Simulation (NCCMMS) (2nd Award),  awarded by NAVAIR Orlando 2006 - 2010
  • Health iManage (HiM): Incentivized Type 2 Diabetes Management Using I-Phone Technology  awarded by ODU Office of Research 2009
  • NSF Grant: Simulation and Visualization Enhanced Engineering Education  awarded by NSF 2005 - 2009
  • EVMS Modeling and Simulation Solutions for Surgery  awarded by Eastern Virginia Medical School 2006
  • Crowd Behavior Modeling (3rd Award)  awarded by DMSO, AFRL, JFCOM 2005 - 2006
  • The Augmented Standardized Patient: Using Augmented Reality for Assessment  awarded by Stemmler Medical Education Research Fund 2005 - 2006
  • Crowd Behavior Modeling (2nd Award)  awarded by DMSO 2004 - 2005
  • Human Performance Modeling using Circadian Rhythms  awarded by USAMRMC 2004 - 2005
  • The National Center for Collaboration in Medical Modeling and Simulation (NCCMMS)  awarded by NAVAIR Orlando 2004 - 2005
  • Quantifying Prostate Surgery Success (2nd Award)  awarded by EVMS 2003 - 2004
  • Composable, Reconfigurable, Environment for Acquisition, Training and Experimentation (CREATE)  awarded by DMSO 2002 - 2004
  • Quantifying Prostate Surgery Success (3rd Award)  awarded by EVMS - 2004
  • National center for collaboration in medical modeling and simulation. (Phase I)  awarded by EVMS/GEOCENTERS 2003
  • NSF Planning Grant: Simulation and Visualization Enhanced Engineering Education  awarded by NSF - 2003
  • Developing virtual environments for training  awarded by Office of Naval Research 2001 - 2002
  • Formal Methods for Simulation Architectures  awarded by STRICOM 2001 - 2002
  • Virtual Environments for Training  awarded by ONR 2000 - 2002
  • Quantifying Prostate Surgery Success  awarded by EVMS - 2002
  • Joint Battlespace Environment (JBE) IITSEC Integration  awarded by JFCOM J7 - 2001
  • Joint Futures Predicting Intentions  awarded by JFCOM J9 - 2001
  • 2D/3D Navigation Display  awarded by WR Systems - 2000
  • Personality-based Human Behavior Modeling  awarded by VMASC IR&D - 2000
  • A new Computational Method for Prostate Cancer Biomarker Identification  awarded by Department of defense-Prostate Cancer Research Program 2009 -
  • A new Computational Method for Prostate Cancer Biomarker Identification  awarded by Department of defense-Prostate Cancer Research Program 2008 -
  • MRI  awarded by NSF 1987 -
  • Education And Training

  • Ph.D. in Computer Engineering, University of Central Florida 1994
  • M.S. in Computer Engineering, University of Central Florida 1990
  • B.S. in Engineering, University of Central Florida 1988
  • Full Name

  • Frederic Mckenzie