Selected Publications

Articles In Academic Journals

Year Title
2018 Review: Application of tick control technologies for blacklegged, lone star, and American dog ticksJournal of Integrated Pest Management. 10.
2017 A Stochastic Tick-Borne Disease Model: Exploring the Probability of Pathogen PersistenceBulletin of Mathematical Biology. 1999-2021.
2017 Borrelia miyamotoi, Other Vector-Borne Agents in Cat Blood and Ticks in Eastern Maryland.  1-5.
2017 Defining the Risk of Zika and Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Human Population Centers of the Eastern United StatesPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. e0005255.
2017 Natural history of Amblyomma maculatum in VirginiaTicks and tick-borne diseases.
2017 Natural history of Ixodes affinisin VirginiaTicks and tick-borne diseases.
2016 Invasion of two tick-borne diseases across New England: harnessing human surveillance data to capture underlying ecological invasion processesProceedings. Biological sciences.
2016 Investigating cholera using an SIR model with age-class structure and optimal controlInvolve, a Journal of Mathematics. 83-100.
2016 New Records of Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) Parasitizing Avian Hosts in Southeastern VirginiaJournal of Medical Entomology. 441-5.
2016 New records of Ixodes affinis parasitizing avian hosts in southeastern VirginiaJournal of Medical Entomology. 441-445.
2016 Simultaneous identification of host, ectoparasite and pathogen DNA via in-solution captureMolecular Ecology Resources. 1224-39.
2015 Climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmissionPhilosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences.
2015 Comparative landscape genetics of two invading ticks: evidence of the ecological mechanisms underlying tick range expansions.  153-162.
2015 Comparative population genetics of two invading ticks: Evidence of the ecological mechanisms underlying tick range expansionsInfection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases. 153-62.
2015 Experimental Vertical Transmission of Rickettsia parkeri in the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatumTicks and tick-borne diseases. 568-573.
2015 Rickettsia parkeri Transmission to Amblyomma americanum by Cofeeding with Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Potential for SpilloverJournal of Medical Entomology. 1090-5.
2014 Additional U.S. collections of the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), from the State of Delaware, the first reported field collections of adult specimens from the State of Maryland, and data regarding this tick from surveillance of migratory songbirds in MarylandSystematic & Applied Acarology. 257-262.
2014 Ehrlichia and spotted fever group Rickettsiae surveillance in Amblyomma americanum in Virginia through use of a novel six-plex real-time PCR assayVector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.). 307-16.
2014 Planning for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in sub-Saharan Africa: a modeling-based approachVaccine. 3316-22.
2014 Quantitative factors proposed to influence the prevalence of canine tick-borne disease agents in the United StatesParasites & vectors. 417.
2014 Single-tube real-time PCR assay for differentiation of Ixodes affinis and Ixodes scapularisTicks and tick-borne diseases. 48-52.
2014 Tick-borne pathogens of potential zoonotic importance in the southern African RegionJournal of the South African Veterinary Association. 1084.
2014 TickBot: A novel robotic device for controlling tick populations in the natural environmentTicks and tick-borne diseases.
2014 Ticks and spotted fever group rickettsiae of southeastern VirginiaTicks and tick-borne diseases. 53-57.
2014 Using Pheromones to Enhance Field Tick Collection TechniquesLetters in Biomathematics.
2014 Whole-system replication to optimize aberration-detection methods for biosurveillancePLOS ONE. e100845.
2013 A Laboratory for Collaboration: Rehearsal Communication Skills for Biologists and MathematiciansBiology International.
2013 Identifying requirements for the invasion of a tick species and tick-borne pathogen through TICKSIMMathematical Biosciences and Engineering. 625-635.
2013 Optimal control applied to Rift Valley feverNatural Resource Modeling. 385-402.
2012 An epidemiological model of Rift Valley fever with spatial dynamicsComputational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine. 1-12.
2012 In vitro propagation of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae isolated from Amblyomma maculatumFEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology.
2012 The effects of temperature on the emergence and seasonality of West Nile virus in CaliforniaAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. 884-894.
2011 An age-structured model for the spread of epidemic cholera: analysis and simulationNonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications. 3483-3498.
2011 Classroom manipulative to engage students in mathematical modeling of disease spread: 1+1 = achoo!Mathematical Modeling of Natural Phenomena. 215-226.
2011 Estimating the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on HPV prevalence and cervical cancer incidence in MaliClinical Infectious Diseases. 641-645.
2011 Estimating the reproductive numbers for the 2008-2009 cholera outbreaks in ZimbabweProceedings of the National Academies. 8767-8772.
2011 Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeastern Virginia and implications for the spread of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme diseaseJournal of Vector Ecology. 464-467.
2011 Mathematical model to assess the relative effectiveness of Rift Valley fever countermeasuresInternational Journal of Artificial Life Research. 1-18.
2011 Potential effects of Rift Valley fever in the United StatesEmerging Infectious Diseases.
2011 Preliminary analysis of an agent-based model for a tick-borne diseaseMathematical Biosciences and Engineering. 465-475.
2011 Rickettsia parkeri in gulf coast ticks, southeastern Virginia, USAEmerg Infect Dis. 896-898.
2011 Tidewater Spotted Fever: Detection of Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast ticks, southeastern VirginiaEmerging Infectious Diseases. 896-898.
2011 Use of optimal control models to predict treatment time for managing tick-borne diseaseJournal of Biological Dynamics. 517-530.
2010 From the National Academies "Beyond BIO2010: Celebration and Opportunities" at the Intersection of BiologyCBE--Life Sciences Education. 143-147.
2010 Mathematical Manipulative Models: In Defense of “Beanbag Biology”CBE–Life Sciences Education. 201-211.
2010 Modeling optimal intervention strategies for choleraBulletin of Mathematical Biology. 2004-2018.
2010 Theory of island biogeography on a microscopic scale: organic aggregates as islands for aquatic pathogensAquatic Microbial Ecology.
2009 Optimal control applied to vaccination and treatment strategies for various epidemiological modelsMathematical Biosciences and Engineering. 469-492.
2008 Advancing epidemiological science through computational modeling: a review with novel examplesAnnales Zoologici Fennici. 385-401.
2008 Results from a mathematical model for human monocytic ehrlichiosisClinical Microbiology and Infection. 15-16.
2007 An epidemiological model for Rift Valley fever virus, Electronic Journal of Differential Equations.  1-12.
2007 An epidemiological modelfor Rift Valley fever virusElectronic Journal of Differential Equations. 1-12.
2007 Analysis of a tick-borne disease model with varying populaton sizes in various habitatsBulletin of Mathematical Biology. 265-288.
2007 Harvesting control in an integrodifference population model with concave growth termNonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems. 417-429.
2007 Modeling tick-borne disease: a metapopulation analysisBulletin of Mathematical Biology. 265-288.
2007 Optimal harvesting during an invasion of a sublethal plan pathogenEnvironmental and Development Economics. 673-686.
2007 Utility of active surveillance culturing for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus upon intensive care unit dischargeInfection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 666-670.
2006 Optimal harvesting in an integro-difference population modelOptimal Control Applications and Methods. 61-75.
2004 Evaluation of and insights from ALFISH: a spatially-explicit, landscape-level simulation of fish populations in the EvergladesHydrobiologia. 73-86.
2000 A dynamic landscape model for fish in the Everglades and its application to restorationEcological Modelling. 33-52.


Year Title
2016 Optimal Control of Vaccination in an Age-Structured Cholera ModelMathematical and Statistical Modeling for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases. Springer Nature.
2014 Tick-borne Rickettsioses II (Anaplasmataceae)Biology of Ticks Volume 2, Second Edition. Oxford University Press.
2013 Global dynamics emerging from local interactions: agent-based modeling for the life sciencesMathematical concepts and methods in modern biology : using modern discrete models. Academic Press.
2008 Metapopulation models in tick-borne disease transmission modellingModelling parasitic Disease Transmission: Biology to Control. Austin, TX, USA: Landes Bioscience / Eurekah.

Conference Papers

Year Title
2016 Ticky Business Simulation. Proceedings of the 2016 Student Capstone Conference
2015 Dynamics of two pathogens in a single tick population
2014 Modeling Effectiveness of Tick Control by a Species that Exhibits Predator-prey Role Reversal
2012 An agent-based model of the dynamics of a tick-borne disease
2012 Mathematics in a biological context: the use of modeling, analysis and simulation to enhance STEM education
2012 Simulation of infectious disease spread in a clinical lab setting: a pilot study
2012 The application of interactive behavior change technologies to enhance patient education among adults diagnosed with diabetes
2011 Preliminary modeling solutions for prevention of Medicare insolvency for the Baby Boomer generation
2011 Using modeling and simulation to improve oral health services delivery in Norfolk Public Health District Dental Clinic, Little Creek
2010 An analysis of biosurveillance and potential threats to public health
2010 The use of Getis and Ord cluster analysis for analyzing rainfall data in relation to Rift Valley fever outbreaks
2010 Use of polyethylene microspheres to simulate hospital acquired infections: a teaching strategy for healthcare students and workers
2010 Using modeling and simulation to improve oral health services delivery

Research Overview

  • mathematical modeling and computer simulation of infectious diseases with specific interest in tick-borne diseases
  • Grants

  • Quantitative genomic analysis of black-legged tick populations in VA to identify processes associated with increased Lyme disease incidence 2017 - 2018
  • Adapting Tickbot Technology To Support Efforts By Appropriated Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Research Project  awarded by US Department of Agriculture 2016 - 2018
  • Lymesim Software And Support Services For The National Center For Emerging And Zoonotic Infectious Diseases  awarded by Non-Disclosed Sponsor 2016 - 2018
  • LYMESIM Software and Support Services  awarded by CDC 2016 - 2017
  • Scaffolding Disciplinary Writing across the Biology Undergraduate Curriculum  awarded by Old Dominion University 2016 - 2017
  • Biology and impacts of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) leech infestations in Back Bay, USA  awarded by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries 2015 - 2017
  • Research Leave Support  awarded by UKZN 2015
  • Old Dominion Undergraduate Research Apprenticeship Grant  awarded by Old Dominion University 2014
  • Tick Robot Experimental Design 2013 - 2014
  • Old Dominion Undergraduate Research Apprenticeship Grant  awarded by Old Dominion University 2013
  • Dengue Fever Modeling and Analysis  awarded by Math Ecology LLC Subaward 2012 - 2013
  • RCN UBE-Incubator: Interdisciplinary Communication Laboratory for Undergraduate Biology (iCLUB)  awarded by NSF 2011 - 2013
  • RUI: Collaborative Research: Optimal Control Investigator for Cholera Outbreaks  awarded by NSF 2008 - 2013
  • Old Dominion Undergraduate Research Apprenticeship Grant  awarded by Old Dominion University 2012
  • Research For Undergraduates in Math and Science  awarded by ODU Honors College 2011 - 2012
  • Spatially-explicit mathematical model of human monocytic ehrlichiosis  awarded by NIH K25 Award KAI067791A 2007 - 2012
  • Impact of Climate on the Introduction of a Zoonotic Disease in the United States: A Focus on Rift Valley Fever  awarded by DHS Award FAZD Center 2010 - 2011
  • Modeling eco-epidemiology of chronic disease in wild finfish  awarded by ODU Office of Research Multidisciplinary Seed Funding Program 2010
  • Rift Valley fever modeling and analysis  awarded by DHS through Georgetown University 2010
  • Do Marine Aggregates Facilitate Gene Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance in Nature?  awarded by Old Dominion University Department of Research 2009 - 2010
  • Bring Value Through BioSense - a Performance Based Approach  awarded by John Hopkins University/CDC 2006 - 2009
  • Disease-Course Surveillance  awarded by Baltimore, VA Research and Education Foundation 2008
  • Instruction & Learning in a Virtual Intensive Care Unit  awarded by Old Dominion University, Office of Research 2008
  • Investigation of Instruction and Learning in a Virtual Intensive Care Unit  awarded by Old Dominion University Office of Research & Baltimore Research and Education Foundation 2008
  • Argus Project  awarded by Georgetown University 2006 - 2007
  • New Nosocomial Interventions to Decrease Antimicrobial Resistance  awarded by CDC 2006 - 2007
  • Modeling of Rift Valley Fever for Agricultural Bioterrorism Defense  awarded by Office of Homeland Security 2004 - 2007
  • Expertise Keywords

  • Biology : Mathematical Ecology
  • Biology : Ticks and tick-borne diseases
  • GIS
  • Mathematics : Mathematical Biology
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Education And Training

  • Ph.D. in Mathematics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 1999
  • B.S. in Mathematics and Environmental Science, Taylor University 1993
  • Full Name

  • Holly Gaff